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State transitions of water


State transitions that have nothing to do with migrations and fleeing brains because we are talking about solid, liquid and aeriform states and substances, not people or goods. THE changes of state they are easy to imagine for water but also occur for other types of elements, they are fascinating evolutions to study and observe, with logic and mechanisms that tell how "everything changes", or almost everything!

State transitions of water

The transitions of state that see water as well as other substances, protagonists, are various. The sublimation is the transition from the solid to the gaseous or gaseous state, the frost that from the gaseous to the solid state, there is then the fusion, to pass from the solid to the liquid state and the solidification for the reverse state change.

The changes of state are not finished: everyone knows that the water can evaporate, passing from the liquid to the gaseous state, and water vapor can condense, becoming liquid, there is then liquefaction which is the transition from the gaseous state to the liquid state by compression only and only if the aeriform is at a temperature below the critical temperature.

State transitions of matter

THE changes of state just mentioned involve not only water but many other substances. They involve changes that are quite evident but not trivial if you go in depth, element by element, why each has its own peculiar and original behaviors.

In general we can say that a solid state matter has its own volume and shape, passing to the liquid state it always has its own volume but not a fixed shape, it adapts to the container that contains it ... or it spreads on the surface where it is placed. When we are in one gaseous state, there is neither volume nor fixed shape of its own, a gas in fact expands occupying all the space it “finds” and certainly does not have a shape to which it must respond.

State transitions in physics

So far we have described the changes of state with the eye of those who are not experts on the subject and can observe them from the outside, based on daily experiences. Deepening these “magic” from a scientific point of view, they discover themselves laws and rules, exceptions and mysteries yet to be revealed.

The "solidity" that we observe is due to the fact that in this state the constituents of matter are linked by very intense forces that allow only motions of vibration, in the liquid state the forces between the components decrease in intensity so there can be sliding and there are no shape constraints, but only minimal volume variations remain possible compared to what happens for gases.

The forces that bind the constituents in a gas they are so weak that they feel free to move independently and to expand until they encounter insurmountable obstacles. And they are also free, within certain limits, to compress themselves. If we talk about state changes in Physics we can also enter into the merits of the plasma state, considering the fourth state of matter.

When a matter is in plasma state it looks like a gas but is ionized and therefore consists of a set of electrons and ions. Its total electric charge is always zero.

State changes and states of aggregation of matter

In addition to those already described there are other fascinating ones states of aggregation of matter which can be investigated. Even just by observing the ice better, there are different types: ice I, ice II, ice III and so on up to ice XV.

Other existing states that we encounter and that we can study carefully. Here are a few: the superfluid (helium at very low temperatures), the supercritical state and that supersolid, colloidal, neutronium, the plasma of quarks and gluons, the Bose-Einstein condensate and the liquid crystal.

It is not a state of aggregation of matter, but centers with the concept of "aggregation": it is the capillarity of the water, a phenomenon that, to see it, may seem like magic. But it's physical!

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